Appendices

Додание

25.1 Colors

Novegradian has nine basic color terms, compared to the eleven of English. A basic color term is the highest level of color terminology in a language, a term that cannot be encompassed by another larger term. For example, in English “crimson” is not a basic color term because the term “red” includes “crimson” as well as many other shades.

What constitutes each color varies significantly from the Latinate pattern used throughout much of Europe, the result of the many years of relative isolation the language experienced until around the 17th century, although there has been influence as well from the Uralic languages.

Цервене cérvene, often translated as “red”, encompasses the range from dark reds to medium-strength oranges. Some colors that might be considered very dark purple in English are also included.
Жољте źółte, or “yellow”, includes the yellows, golds, and lighter oranges. Oranges (the fruit) would be considered to be жољте.
Желене źeléne, or “green”, includes the yellow-greens, greens, and some turqoise.
Плаве pláve, or “light blue”, covers some blue-greens and goes to the medium blues.
Шинье śínje, or “dark blue”, includes the darker shades of blue as well as most purples.
Руде rúde, or “brown”, covers the range of browns as well as dull reds.
Церне cérne means “black”.
Бѣле bě́le means “white”.
All intermediate shades between black and white are referred to as хѣре hě́re “grey”.

Two other colors, розове rózove “pink” and оранжеве oránźeve “orange”, are gaining increasing usage due to Western European influence. However, they are generally not viewed as “basic” terms at present.

25.2 Time and Date

25.2.1 Months and Weekdays

The days of the week for the most part have transparent meanings related to their position within the week. As in the rest of Europe, the week begins on Monday.

In colloquial speech amongst all generations, the pronunciation [ˈspa.tə] is almost universal for собота in the sense of “Saturday”, while “Sabbath” universally retains the older pronunciation [so.ˈbo.tə]. The “спата” pronunciation originated as a hypercorrection, an attempt to remove a supposedly Russified pronunciation from the language (as the native Novegradian cognates of many Russian words with the C1oC2oC3 structure have a C1C2aC3 form, although properly they also require C2 to be either /l/ or /r/). It has been further strengthened by the perceived connection with спати “sleep, rest”, which is actually completely unrelated. The [so.ˈbo.tə] pronunciation remains in use for all meanings in formal registers.

The month names are less transparent, deriving from older Slavic names and describing nature.

25.2.2 Adverbs and Other Time Terminology

Novegradian has three words that can be translated as “now” in English:

Соѕаса is a distortion of Common Slavic *sъ-čаsomь “with the hour”, or possibly sь-čаsъ “this hour”. Similar in origin are шеден śedén “today” and шеғод śeğód “this year”.

Similar adverbs, except derived from the distal demonstrative *onъ, are ономедни onomédni “on that day” and ономеғоди onoméğodi “in that year”, derived from Common Slavic *onomь-dьne and *onomь-godě, respectively. These may be used to refer to specific dates in the past or the future.

The adjective прошле próśle is used to mean “last” or previous”: прошлое асто próśloie ásto “last year”. The adjective наступне nastúpne (pronounced [nə.ˈstu.ne]) is used to mean “next” or “following”: наступное асто nastúpnoie ásto “next year”. There is one adverb, љони łoní, meaning “last year”, but its usage is somewhat marked.

“Tomorrow” is занок zánok, literally “behind the night”. “The day after tomorrow” is нимзанок nimzánok, literally “past tomorrow”.

“Yesterday” is вецераш véceraś, literally “[of/before] this [last] evening”. “The day before yesterday” is нимецераш niméceraś, literally “past yesterday”.

Although not frequently used, денеш denéś also means “today”, generally in more poetic or archaic contexts. Similar is the adverb ногьеш nogjéś, meaning “tonight”.

The adjectives “today’s”, “tomorrow’s”, and “yesterday’s” are денеуне denéune, еутрене iéutrene, and вецерне vécerne respectively. These words are also the adjectival forms of “day”, “morning”, and “evening” respectively; that is, денеуне means both “today’s” as well as “diurnal”.

Novegradian has two words for “day”. Дене déne refers to the period of daylight, or to a day on the calendar. Сутоки sútoki (which is always plural) refers to an astronomical day, including both day and night, or to a 24-hour period in general (e.g., 18.00-18.00 is considered one period of сутоки).

There are also distinct words for “the day before/eve of” and “the day after”: вигла vígla and заутра záutra respectively. The phrases “on the day before/eve of” and “on the day after” are written as a single word: вовиглу vovíglu, возаутру vozáutru. Unlike English “eve”, these are fully productive and are not limited to certain holidays: яс пришле думове возаутру сурвѣ iás priślé domóve vozáutru survě́ “I arrived home the day after the blizzard”. These prepositions may also be used alone as adverbs, where they can serve the useful function of distinguishing the narrative and absolute senses of “yesterday” and tomorrow”. As adverbs, both are stressed on the first syllable: vóviglu and vózautru.

25.2.3 Telling Time and Giving the Date

Whole hours are expressed using feminine ordinals in their definite form (due to the dropped word пора porá “hour”). One o’clock, however, is expressed as just пора rather than an ordinal. They will generally appear in the accusative case when describing when something happens, although the nominative case is used when just reading off time.

1 Соѕаса пора / другая / дежетая.
Sodzása porá / drugáia / deźétaia.
now Ø hour-nom.sg / second-nom.sg.fem.def / tenth-nom.sg.fem.def
“It’s 1.00 / 2.00 / 10.00.”

Minutes are shown after the preposition со so “with” in the dative/instrumental case: 6.20 шестая со дўудешитех śéstaia so dwudéśiteh, literally “the sixth with twenty”. The minutes show feminine agreement, if needed, because of минута minúta.

Two special words for fractions of hours also exist—пољ pół “half” and цетуерте cetuérte “quarter”. The latter may be placed after an hour much like the other minutes: тритей со цетуертем trítei so cetuértem “3.15”. When either form is placed before the hour, the hour is put in the genitive case and the time is subtractive: пољ тритѣе pół trítěie “2.30”, lit. “half of the third [hour]”. Пољ is always used subtractively like this. When a specific amount of minutes are used subtractively, the preposition со (this time meaning “from”) is required, the hour again being in the genitive: дуадешити со шенмѣе duadéśiti so śénměie “6.40”, lit. “twenty [minutes] from the seventh [hour]”. In general, the additive method is used for minutes between 01 and 29, and the subtractive method for minutes between 30 and 59.

This system is the most commonly used nowadays. It replaces an older system (still seen amongst the older generations or in rural areas) where times were based entirely on the following hour: тритѣе дешити trítěie déśiti “2.10” (lit. “of the third [hour] ten [minutes]”, that is, ten minutes into the third hour of the day). This has become increasingly uncommon since the advent of digital clocks since the modern system allows for an almost literal and linear reading of the numbers off the display, rather than requiring mentally adding one to the hour number displayed. However, a few remnants remain in the common lexicon, particularly the expression of “half” as just discussed.

There are no real equivalents for “am” and “pm” as used in English. Instead, an adverb of time may be employed. Еутром iéutrom “in the morning” is used roughly from 5am to noon, денем dénem “in the daytime” from noon to 5pm, вецерем vécerem “in the evening” from 5pm until 11pm, and ногьюм nogjiúm “at night” from 11pm until 5am. Equivalent adverbs (e.g., using the locative case instead) are also allowed. Alternatively, and perhaps more commonly, speakers may also give time according to a 24-hour clock.

The terms for “noon” and “midnight” are пољудна połudná “noon” and пољункьи półunkji, respectively. Both of these, however, are somewhat quirky in their declension. “Noon” is first declension in the singular and fourth declension in the plural. “Midnight” is always plural.

Dates are given using the genitive singular masculine definite form of an ordinal number (for ден dén “days”) followed by the genitive singular of the month: дуадеши пирваево румѣнѣ duadéśi pirváievo rumě́ně “October 21st” (lit. “of the twenty-first [day] of October”).

25.3 Dual Nouns

A small set of nouns in Novegradian retain a distinct and functional dual form. As described in Section 12.8 and Section 13.8, outside of frozen expressions the dual forms are only used after the numeral “two” or the modifier “both”. Such nouns mostly describe paired body parts and clothing related to them. These twenty duals are shown in the table below, alongside with their nominative plural and genitive singular form for comparison. The three forms listed under “Dual Forms” are the nom/acc/lat, gen/loc, and datins, respectively.

Nominative Singular Meaning Dual Forms Nominative Plural Genitive Singular
брев brév eyebrow бреве bréve
бреву brévu
бреума bréuma
бреви brévi брева bréva
гранди grándi breast гранди grándi
грандю grándiu
грандима grándima
грандие grándie гранди grandí
колѣно kolě́no knee колѣни kolě́ni
колѣну kolě́nu
колѣнома kolěnóma
колѣна kolěná колѣну kolě́nu
кригло krigló wing кригли krígli
криглу kríglu
криглома kriglóma
кригла kriglá криглу kríglu
ланкьо lankjó hip ланкьи lánkji
ланкьу lánkju
ланкьома lankjóma
ланкьа lankjá ланкьу lánkju
лохти lóhti elbow лохти lóhti
лохтю lóhtiu
лохтима lóhtima
лохтие lóhtie лохти lohtí
нерка nérka kidney неркѣ nérkě
нерку nérku
неркома nerkóma
нерки nérki неркѣ nérkě
нога nogá foot, leg ногѣ nogě́
ногу nogú
ногома nógoma
ноги nógi ногѣ nogě́
око óko eye оки óki
оку óku
огома ogóma
ога ogá оку óku
оху óhu ear охесе óhese
охесу óhesu
оесма oiésma
охеси óhesi охеса óhesa
осту óstu lip ости ósti
осту óstu
остома ostóma
оста ostá осту óstu
плегьо plegjó shoulder плекьи plékji
плекьу plékju
плегьома plegjóma
плегьа plegjá плекьу plékju
плукье plúkje lung плукьѣ plúkjě
плукьу plúkju
плугьема plugjéma
плукьи plúkji плукьа plúkja
понога pónoga sock поногѣ pónogě
поногу pónogu
поногома ponógoma
поноги pónogi поногѣ pónogě
порцаска porcáska winter glove порцаскѣ porcáskě
порцаску porcásku
порцаскома porcaskóma
порцаски porcáski порцаскѣ porcáskě
роге róge horn рогѣ rógě
рогу rógu
рогема rogéma
роги rógi рога róga
рока róka hand, arm рокѣ rókě
року róku
рогома rogóma
роки róki рокѣ rókě
ругавица rugávica work glove ругавицѣ rugávicě
ругавицу rugávicu
ругавиѕома rugavidzóma
ругавици rugávici ругавицѣ rugávicě
сабоге sabóge boot сабогѣ sabógě
сабогу sabógu
сабогома sabogéma
сабоги sabógi сабога sabóga
ягодица iágodica cheek ягодицѣ iágodicě
ягодицу iágodicu
ягодиѕома iagodidzóma
ягодици iágodici ягодицѣ iágodicě

25.4 Kinship

Following are the standard Novegradian kinship terms. It maintains a very complicated system of kinship by European standards, although certain terms are much more common than others. In the formal language possessive pronouns are required to follow these nouns, and in the spoken language they all take possessive suffixes.

25.4.1 Nuclear Family

Noun Plural 1Sg Poss. Meaning
родителе rodítele родители rodíteli родителмо rodítelmo parent
тата táta тати táti татмо tátmo father
мати máti матери máteri матмо mátmo mother
мама máma мами mámi маммо mámmo mother 1
маже máźe мажя maźiá мажмо máźmo husband
жена źená жени źéni женамо źenámo wife
дѣтинко dě́tinko дѣдете dě́dete дѣдинмо dědínmo child 2
дѣдин dědín дѣдете dě́dete дѣдинмо dědínmo child 3
син sín синьа sinjá синмо sínmo son
докьи dókji докьери dókjeri докьмо dókjmo daughter
брате bráte бракьи brákji братмо brátmo brother
шестра śéstra шестри śéstri шестрамо śéstramo sister

25.4.2 Older Extended Family

Noun Plural 1Sg Poss. Meaning
дѣда dě́da дѣгьи dě́gji дѣдмо dě́dmo grandfather
прадѣда pradě́da прадѣгьи pradě́gji прадѣдмо pradě́dmo great grandfather
баба bába баби bábi бабмо bábmo grandmother
прабаба prabába прабаби prabábi прабабмо prabábmo great grandmother
стриеце strijéce стриеци strijéci страецмо strajécmo paternal uncle
оеце óiece оеци óieci оецмо óiecmo maternal uncle
дядя diádia дядѣ diádě дядмо diádmo uncle 4
стрийка stríjka стрийки stríjki страйкамо stráikamo paternal aunt
тета téta тети téti тетмо tétmo paternal aunt 5
ойка óika ойки óiki ойкамо óikamo maternal aunt
наня nánia нанѣ náně нанмо nánmo maternal aunt 6
брадане bradáne браданьи bradánji браданмо bradánmo male first cousin
шестрѣна śestrě́na шестрѣньи śestrě́nji шестрѣнмо sestrě́nmo female first cousin

25.4.3 Younger Extended Family

Noun Plural 1Sg Poss. Meaning
братеве син bráteve sín братеви синьа brátevi sinjá синмо братевей sínmo brátevei nephew 7
шестрина докьи śéstrina dókji шестрини докьери śéstrini dókjeri докьмо шестриная dókjmo śestrínaia niece
внуке vnúke внуци vnúci внукмо vnúkmo grandson
праунуке práunuke праунуци práunuci праунукмо práunukmo great-grandson
внуцка vnúcka внуцки vnúcki внуцкамо vnúckamo granddaughter
праунуцка práunucka праунуцки práunucki праунуцкамо práunuckamo great-granddaughter

25.4.4 Step-Family

Noun Plural 1Sg Poss. Meaning
отѕиме otdzíme отѕими otdzími отѕиммо otdzímmo stepfather
матерша máterśa матерши máterśi матершамо máterśamo stepmother
акосин akosín акосиньа akosinjá акосинмо akosínmo stepson
акодокьерша akodókjerśa акодокьерши akodókjerśi акодокьершамо akodókjerśamo stepdaughter

25.4.5 Family-in-Law

Noun Plural 1Sg Poss. Meaning
суекре suékre суекри suékri суекремо suékremo husband's father, father-in-law
тести tésti тестие téstie тестимо téstimo wife's father, father-in-law
суекруа suékrua суекреви suékrevi суекрамо suékramo husband's mother, mother-in-law
тешкьа téśkja тешкьѣ téśkjě тешкьамо téśkjamo wife's mother, mother-in-law
жети źéti жетие źétie жетмо źétmo husband's sister's husband, brother-in-law
шурине śúrine шуря śuriá шуринмо śúrinmo wife's brother, brother-in-law
суате suáte суакьи suákji суатмо suátmo wife's sister's husband, brother-in-law
дѣвери dě́veri дѣверие dě́verie дѣвермо dě́vermo husband's brother, brother-in-law
етруа iétrua етреви iétrevi етрамо iétramo husband's brother's wife, sister-in-law
невѣста nevě́sta невѣсти nevě́sti невѣстамо nevě́stamo wife's brother's wife, sister-in-law
золуа zólua золеви zólevi золуамо zóluamo husband's sister, sister-in-law
суѣсти suě́sti суѣстие suě́stie суѣстимо suě́stimo wife's sister, sister-in-law

All of these terms are in use, though some are relatively infrequent in unrestricted speech. The terms for parents-in-law show no signs of loss, and the terms for siblings-in-law are still quite frequent, although they may be replaced with phrases. However, the terms for the siblings-in-law of spouses are often replaced by phrases colloquially, though this is frowned upon in formal usage: суатмо suátmo → маже суѣстя омне máźe suě́stia omné.

25.4.6 Other Terms

In addition, the following terms, though not representing familial relations, also take possessive suffixes:

Noun Plural 1Sg Poss. Meaning
юнце iúnce юнци iúnci юнцемо iúncemo fiancé
юница iúnica юници iúnici юницмо iúnicmo fiancée
друге drúge дружи drúźi другмо drúgmo friend

25.5 Punctuation

Novegradian uses mostly the same punctuation as English, although the rules governing their use differ slightly.

  1. Full stop (.) — The full stop is used:
    1. To mark the end of a sentence making a statement.
    2. To mark the end of a sentence containing an indirect question.
    3. To mark abbreviations that are not serving as units of measurement (e.g., г. for граде “city”, or ст. for страница “page”).
    4. To separate units when giving time: 12.30.
    5. To group non-decimal numbers: 2.000.000 “two million”.
  2. Comma (,) — The comma is used:
    1. To represent a short pause in speech.
    2. To separate items in a list including more than two (and must be before the и ‘and’), or to separate clauses in a sentence consisting of more than two coordinated together.
    3. In parenthetical expressions, although very short ones often do not need the comma.
    4. To separate phrases in apposition, unless they are very short.
    5. To separate subordinate clauses from the primary clause (unless joined using то-це).
    6. To separate non-restrictive relative clauses.
    7. Before contrasting conjunctions such as но and а.
    8. To separate decimal numbers from non-decimal numbers: 1,5 “one and a half”.
  3. Exclamation Mark (!) — The exclamation mark is used:
    1. At the end of a command, interjection, or emphatic statement.
    2. At the end of questions with extreme emotion. “?!”, which is used in English, may not be used in Novegradian, so “What?!” would be rendered “Цой!”.
  4. Question Mark (?) — The question mark is used:
    1. At the end of a sentence expressing a question (other than indirect questions).
    2. At the end of a sentence containing a tag question (e.g., ..., нет прауда ли?” “isn’t that true?”).
  5. Colon (:) — The colon is used:
    1. Before a list introduced by an independent clause.
    2. Before a quotation introduced by an independent clause.
    3. Between two closely-related but non-coordinated independent clauses (much like the semicolon in English).
  6. Semicolon (;) — Although uncommon, the semicolon may be used:
    1. To separate items in a large list, or a long series of coordinated phrases or clauses.
  7. Hyphen (-) — The hyphen is used:
    1. To separate two elements of a compound that is not entirely viewed as a single word (e.g., новеградеско-английске слоунике “Novegradian-English dictionary”).
    2. To join two adjectives together into a single word (e.g., соцяљно-економицеске “socio-economic”).
    3. To separate a prefix or inflection from a numeral or a word it may not be recognized on, especially foreign names (e.g., 123-ом “123rd [dative/instrumental case]”).
    4. To separate the topicalization marker то from the word it modifies.
  8. En-Dash (–) — The en-dash is used:
    1. To substitute for a zero-form copula, although it may be dropped if there is no ambiguity.
    2. To substitute for another verb lost by ellipsis, although this too is optional (e.g., Едене покренале подар деля друж, а еноке – нецево “One bought gifts for his friends, the other – nothing”).
  9. Em-Dash (—) — The em-dash is used:
    1. To separate long appositives from the rest of the sentence, in which case it must be used on both sides of the clause.
    2. To introduce quotations and separate quotations from prose in dialogue. Unlike in English, in Novegradian quotation marks cannot be used to start a new paragraph.
  10. Parentheses () — The parentheses are used:
    1. In parenthetical expressions.
    Any punctuation appearing within the parentheses must be part of the parenthetical expression, not part of the main sentence, and vice versa.
  11. Quotation Marks („‟) — The quotation marks are used:
    1. To mark quotations.
    2. To single out certain words or expressions.
    3. To name a noun (e.g., гажета „Совѣшкьи‟ “The newspaper ‘Sově́śkji’”). This is not used for people or places, however.
    Novegradian uses „ (left-facing, on bottom) to begin a quote and ‟ (right-facing, on top) to end it. If there are not available, the guillements « » may be used. Using “ ”, as in English, is considered improper. Punctuation rules within quotations are the same as with parentheses—any punctuation within the quote must be part of the quote. Single quotation marks are never used.
  12. Number Sign (№) — The number sign is used:
    1. Before a number qualifying something, but not counting it (e.g., дум № 846 “House number 846”). This corresponds to the use of animate numerals when not counting animate nouns.

25.6 Common Slavic Morphology

The following tables outline Common Slavic inflectional morphology as it is currently understood. These charts reflect the Common Slavic dialect from which Novegradian evolved.

25.6.1 Nominal Morphology

The example nouns used in the chart to the right are *noga “foot, leg” (Ā-Stem), *zemja “land” (JĀ-Stem), *gorde “city, fortress” (Masculine Ŏ-Stem), *město “place” (Neuter Ŏ-Stem), *more “sea” (JŎ-Stem), *synъ “son” (Ŭ-Stem), *kьrky “church” (Ū-Stem), *pǫtь “path” (Ĭ-Stem), *slovo “word” (S-Stem), *mati “mother” (R-Stem), *kamy “stone” (N-Stem), and *agnę “lamb” (NT-Stem).

Singular
Ā-Stem JĀ-Stem O-Stem (M) O-Stem (N) JO-Stem U-Stem Ū-Stem I-Stem S-Stem R-Stem N-Stem NT-Stem
Nominative noga zemja gordъ město more synъ kьrky pǫtь slovo mati kamy agnę
Genitive nogě zemję gorda města morja synu kьrkъve pǫti slovese matere kamene agnęte
Accusative nogǫ zemjǫ gordъ město more synъ kьrky pǫtь slovo mati kamy agnę
Dative nogě zemji gordu městu morju synovi kьrkъvi pǫti slovesi materi kameni agnęti
Instrumental nogojǫ zemjejǫ gordomь městomь moremь synъmь kьrkъvьjǫ pǫtьmь slovesьmь materьmь kamenьmь agnętьmь
Locative nogě zemji gordě městě morji synu kьrkъve pǫti slovese materi kamene agnęte
Vocative nogo zemje gorde měste morju synu kьrky pǫti slovo mati kamy agnę
Dual
Ā-Stem JĀ-Stem O-Stem (M) O-Stem (N) JO-Stem U-Stem Ū-Stem I-Stem S-Stem R-Stem N-Stem NT-Stem
Nom/Acc/Voc nogě zemji gorda městě morji syny kьrkъvi pǫti slovesě materi kameni agnętě
Gen/Loc nogu zemju gordu městu morju synovu kьrkъvu pǫtьju slovesu materu kamenu agnętu
Dat/Instr nogama zemjama gordoma městoma morema synъma kьrkъvama pǫtьma slovesьma materьma kamenьma agnętьma
Plural
Ā-Stem JĀ-Stem O-Stem (M) O-Stem (N) JO-Stem U-Stem Ū-Stem I-Stem S-Stem R-Stem N-Stem NT-Stem
Nominative nogy zemję gordi města morja synove kьrkъvi pǫtьje slovesa materi kamene agnęta
Genitive nogъ zemjь gordъ městъ morjь synovъ kьrkъvъ pǫtьjь slovesъ materъ kamene agnętъ
Accusative nogy zemję gordy města morja syny kьrkъvi pǫti slovesa materi kameni agnęta
Dative nogamъ zemjamъ gordomъ městomъ moremъ synъmъ kьrkъvamъ pǫtьmъ slovesьmъ materьmъ kamenьmъ agnętьmъ
Instrumental nogami zemjami gordy městy morji synъmi kьrkъvami pǫtьmi slovesy materьmi kamenьmi agnęty
Locative nogaxъ zemjaxъ gorděxъ městěxъ morjixъ synъxъ kьrkъvaxъ pǫtьxъ slovesьxъ materьxъ kamenьxъ agnętьxъ
Vocative nogy zemję gordi města morja synove kьrkъvi pǫtьje slovesa materi kamene agnęta

25.6.2 Adjectival Morphology

The following tables demonstate the adjectival morphology of Common Slavic. Below are the indefinite forms (left) and definite (right). On the following page are the short form comparative (left) and long form comparative (right). The example used here is *dobrъ “good, kind”, except for the short comparative, where *vysъ “high” is used.

The superlative was formed with a prefixed *naj- added to the comparative forms.

25.6.3 Verbal Morphology

Common Slavic verbs may be grouped in five primary classes. The first conjugation includes verbs that take -e- in the present tense, and is demonstrated with *nesti “carry” below. The second conjugation consists of verbs that gain the suffix -n-, demonstrated with *dvignǫti “move”. The third conjugation includes verbs that gain the suffix -je- in the present tense, demonstrated with *znati “know” (with a vocalic stem) and *pьsati “write” (with a consonantal stem). The fourth conjugation features -i-, demonstrated with *ljubiti “love”. The fifth conjugation includes the five athematic verbs, demonstrated with *dati “give” below.

Non-Finite Forms
I II III III IV V
Infinitive nesti dvignǫti znati pьsati ljubiti dati
Supine nestъ dvignǫtъ znatъ pьsatъ ljubitъ datъ
Present Tense
I II III III IV V
1Sg nesǫ dvignǫ znajǫ pьsjǫ ljubjǫ damь
2Sg nesešь dvignešь znaješь pьsješь ljubišь dasi
3Sg nesetь dvignetь znajetь pьsjetь ljubitь dastь
1Dl neseva dvigneva znajeva pьsjeva ljubiva dava
2Dl neseta dvigneta znajeta pьsjeta ljubita dasta
3Dl neseta dvigneta znajeta pьsjeta ljubita dasta
1Pl nesemъ dvignemъ znajemъ pьsjemъ ljubimъ damo
2Pl nesete dvignete znajete pьsjete ljubite daste
3Pl nesǫtь dvignǫtь znajǫtь pьsjǫtь ljubętь dadǫtь
Imperfect Tense
I II III III IV V
1Sg nesěaxъ dvigněaxъ znaaxъ pьsaaxъ ljubjaaxъ daděaxъ
2Sg nesěaše dvigněaše znaaše pьsaaše ljubjaaše daděaše
3Sg nesěaše dvigněaše znaaše pьsaaše ljubjaaše daděaše
1Dl nesěaxova dvigněaxova znaaxova pьsaaxova ljubjaaxova daděaxova
2Dl nesěašeta dvigněašeta znaašeta pьsaašeta ljubjaašeta daděašeta
3Dl nesěašeta dvigněašeta znaašeta pьsaašeta ljubjaašeta daděašeta
1Pl nesěaxomъ dvigněaxomъ znaaxomъ pьsaaxomъ ljubjaaxomъ daděaxomъ
2Pl nesěašete dvigněašete znaašete pьsaašete ljubjaašete daděašete
3Pl nesěaxǫ dvigněaxǫ znaaxǫ pьsaaxǫ ljubjaaxǫ daděaxǫ
Aorist Tense
I II III III IV V
1Sg nesoxъ dvigoxъ znaxъ pьsaxъ ljubixъ daxъ
2Sg nese dvige zna pьsa ljubi da
3Sg nese dvige zna pьsa ljubi da
1Dl nesoxova dvigoxova znaxova pьsaxova ljubixova daxova
2Dl nesosta dvigosta znasta pьsasta ljubista dasta
3Dl nesosta dvigosta znasta pьsasta ljubista dasta
1Pl nesoxomъ dvigoxomъ znaxomъ pьsaxomъ ljubixomъ daxomъ
2Pl nesoste dvigoste znaste pьsaste ljubiste daste
3Pl nesošę dvigošę znašę pьsaxǫ ljubixǫ dašǫ
Imperative Mood
I II III III IV V
2Sg nesi dvigni znaji pьsji ljubi dadjь
3Sg nesi dvigni znaji pьsji ljubi dadjь
1Dl nesěva dvigněva znajiva pьsjiva ljubiva dadiva
2Dl nesěta dvigněta znajita pьsjita ljubita dadita
1Pl nesěmъ dvigněmъ znajimъ pьsjimъ ljubimъ dadimъ
2Pl nesěte dvigněte znajite pьsjite ljubite dadite

The above represents the forms used among the North and East Slavs, that is, the forms that Novegradian originated from. There existed considerable dialectical variation, however. In the present tense 2sg, the ending could also be *-ši in addition to *-šь. The final yer in the 3sg and 3pl of the present could be front or back. The 1dl ending in all tenses could be *-vě in addition to *-va. The 3dl could be identical to the 2pl instead of the 2dl. The vowels seen in the imperfect and aorist tenses also tended to be somewhat variable.

It should also be noted that a number of forms have been greatly simplified for this particular table. In particular, only the Slavic neo-aorist is shown; older forms of Common Slavic clearly showed three distinct aorist paradigms.

The verb *byti “be” has two tenses no other verb has, a future and a conditional. The conditional, however, was frequently contaminated by aorist forms (shown in the third column for comparison).

*byti Anomolous Tenses
Future Conditional Aorist
1Sg bǫdǫ bimь byxъ
2Sg bǫdešь bi by
3Sg bǫdetь bi by
1Dl bǫdeva biva byxova
2Dl bǫdeta bista bysta
3Dl bǫdeta bista bysta
1Pl bǫdemъ bimъ byxomъ
2Pl bǫdete bite byste
3Pl bǫdǫtь byšę

25.7 Vocabulary Comparison

The following list compares 100 Novegradian words (the Swadesh List) against seven other Slavic languages: Russian, Ukrainian, Polish, Upper Sorbian, Czech, Serbo-Croatian, and Bulgarian. Forms that are not cognate with the Novegradian word are in gray. A grayed-out word does not necessarily mean that language does not have any cognate for the Novegradian word in question or vice versa; it simply means that the language does not use a cognate word with the same meaning. The final column gives the etymology of the Novegradian form.

Of these, Russian and Ukrainian have the most similar vocabulary. Many centuries of close contact between Novegradian and the East Slavic languages have resulted in significant lexical influence; however, this is ultimately far more apparent in higher registers than in the very core vocabulary of the Swadesh List. Ukrainian tends to have more conservative vocabulary than Russian, which has loaned heavily from Church Slavonic.

Polish, Upper Sorbian, and Czech are all West Slavic languages, the next closest group. Old Novegradian and Old Polish in particular seem to have had a particular strong lexical affinity, enough that some very early historical linguistic analyses of the Slavic languages classified Old Novegradian as a relexified divergent dialect of Old East Slavic. These languages have a much stronger German influence and less of a Church Slavonic influence.

Serbo-Croatian and Bulgarian are both South Slavic languages, the furthest removed from Novegradian. They have a significant layer of Turkish vocabulary. The Serbo-Croatian forms shown below are ekavian (standard Serbian). The Bulgarian verbs are given in the first person singular, since Bulgarian has lost the infinitive.

English Novegradian Russian Ukrainian Polish Sorbian Czech Serbo-Croatian Bulgarian Etymology
1. I яс
iás
я
я
ja ja ја
аз
az
Common Slavic *azъ "I"
2. you (sg) ти
ты
ти
ty ty ty ти
ти
ti
Common Slavic *ty "you"
3. we муи
muí
мы
ми
my my my ми
ние
nie
Common Slavic *my "we"
4. this ше
śé
это
éto
це
to to toto ово
òvō
това
tova
Common Slavic *sь "this"
5. that ше
śé
то
те
tamto to tamto оно
ònō
онова
onova
Common Slavic *sь "this"
6. who? хой
hói
кто
któ
хто
xtó
kto štó kdo ко
кой
koj
Common Slavic *kъ-to "who?"
7. what? цой
cói
что
čtó
що
ščó
co što co шта
štȁ
какво
kakvo
Common Slavic *čь-to "what?"
8. not не
ne
не
ne
не
ne
nie ne ne не
ne
не
ne
Common Slavic *ne "not"
9. all вехе
véhe
весь
vés'
весь
vés'
wszyscy wšitcy vše све
svȅ
всички
vsički
Common Slavic *vьxъ "all"
10. many многе
mnóge
много
mnógo
багато
baháto
dużo wjele mnoho много
mnȍgo
много
mnogo
Common Slavic *mъnogъ "many"
11. one едене
iédene
один
odín
один
odýn
jeden jedyn jeden један
jèdan
един
edin
Common Slavic *edьnъ "one"
12. two дова
dóva
два
dvá
два
dvá
dwa dwa dva два
dvȃ
две
dve
Common Slavic *dъva "two"
13. big вале
vále
большой
bol'šój
великий
velýkyj
wielki wulki velký велик
vèlik
голям
goljam
Common Slavic *valъ "wave"
14. long диляне
diliáne
длинный
dlínnyj
довгий
dóvhyj
długi dołhi dlouhý дуг
dȕg
дълъг
dălăg
Common Slavic *dьlьja "distance"
15. small малене
málene
маленький
málen'kij
малий
malýj
mały mały malý мали
mȃlī
малък
malăk
Common Slavic *malъ "small"
16. woman жена
źená
женщина
žénščina
жінка
žínka
kobieta žona žena жена
žèna
жена
žena
Common Slavic *žena "woman"
17. man маже
máźe
мужчина
mužčína
чоловік
čolovík
mężczyzna muž muž мушкарац
muškárac
мъж
măž
Common Slavic *mǫžь "man"
18. person дужа
duźá
человек
čelovék
людина
ljudýna
człowiek čłowjek člověk човек
čȍvek
човек
čovek
Common Slavic *duxja "soul"
19. fish каля
kália
рыба
rýba
риба
rýba
ryba ryba ryba риба
rȉba
риба
riba
Karelian kala "fish"
20. bird поска
póska
птица
ptíca
птах
ptáx
ptak ptačk pták птица
ptȉca
птица
ptica
Common Slavic *pъtьkа "bird"
21. dog песе
pése
собака
sobáka
собака
sobáka
pies pos pes пас
pȁs
куче
kuče
Common Slavic *pьsъ "dog"
22. louse воши
vóśi
вошь
vóš'
воша
vóša
wesz weš veš уш
ȗš
въшка
văška
Common Slavic *lъšь "louse"
23. tree дрѣво
drě́vo
дерево
dérevo
дерево
dérevo
drzewo štom strom дрво
dȑvo
дърво
dărvo
Common Slavic *dervo "tree"
24. seed шѣме
śě́me
семя
sémja
сім'я
sím'ja
ziarno semje semeno семе
sȅme
семе
seme
Common Slavic *sěmę "seed"
25. leaf листе
líste
лист
líst
листок
listók
liść łopjeno list лист
lȋst
лист
list
Common Slavic *listъ "leaf"
26. root корене
kórene
корень
kóren'
корінь
kórin'
korzeń korjeń kořen корен
kȍrēn
корен
koren
Common Slavic *kory "root"
27. bark кора
kóra
кора
korá
кора
korá
kora škóra kůra кора
kȍra
кора
kora
Common Slavic *kora "bark"
28. skin плоти
plóti
кожа
kóža
шкіра
škíra
skóra koža kůže кожа
kȍža
кожа
koža
Common Slavic *pъltь "skin"
29. meat месо
méso
мясо
mjáso
м'ясо
m'jáso
mięso mjaso maso месо
mȇso
месо
meso
Common Slavic *męso "meat"
30. blood крев
krév
кровь
krov'
кров
krov
krew krej krev крв
kȓv
кръв
krăv
Common Slavic *kry "blood"
31. bone кости
kósti
кость
kóst'
кістка
kístka
kość kosć kost кост
kȏst
кост
kost
Common Slavic *kostь "bone"
32. grease туке
túke
жир
žír
смалець
smálec'
tłuszcz tuk tuk маст
mȃst
мазнина
maznina
Common Slavic *tukъ "fat"
33. egg яеце
iáiece
яйцо
jajcó
яйце
jajcé
jajko jejo vejce јаје
jáje
яйце
jajce
Common Slavic *aje "egg"
34. horn роге
róge
рог
róg
ріг
ríh
róg róh roh рог
rȏg
рог
rog
Common Slavic *rogъ "horn"
35. tail пухе
púhe
хвост
xvóst
хвіст
xvíst
ogon wogon ocas реп
rȇp
опашка
opaška
Common Slavic *puxъ "down"
36. feather перко
pérko
перо
peró
перо
peró
pióro pjero pero перо
pèro
перо
pero
Common Slavic *pero "feather"
37. hair власе
vláse
волос
vólos
волос
vólos
włosy włosa vlasy коса
kòsa
коса
kosa
Common Slavic *volsъ "hair"
38. head глава
gláva
голова
golová
голова
holová
głowa hłowa hlava глава
gláva
глава
glava
Common Slavic *golva "head"
39. ear оху
óhu
ухо
úxo
вухо
vúxo
ucho wucho ucho уво
ȕvo
ухо
uxo
Common Slavic *uxo "ear"
40. eye око
óko
глаз
gláz
око
óko
oko woko oko око
ȍko
око
oko
Common Slavic *oko "eye"
41. nose носе
nóse
нос
nós
ніс
nís
nos nós nos нос
nȏs
нос
nos
Common Slavic *nosъ "nose"
42. mouth роте
róte
рот
rót
рот
rót
usta huba ústa уста
ústa
уста Common Slavic *rъtъ "mouth"
43. tooth забе
zábe
зуб
zúb
зуб
zúb
ząb zub zub зуб
zȗb
зъб
zăb
Common Slavic *zǫbъ "tooth"
44. tongue лизике
lizíke
язык
jazýk
язик
jazýk
język jazyk jazyk језик
jèzik
език
ezik
Common Slavic *językъ "tongue"
45. fingernail ноготи
nógoti
ноготь
nógot'
ніготь
níhot'
paznokieć nohć nehet нокат
nȍkat
нокът
nokăt
Common Slavic *nogъtъ "nail"
46. foot нога
nogá
нога
nogá
нога
nohá
stopa stopa noha стопало
stòpalo
стъпало
stăpalo
Common Slavic *noga "leg, foot"
47. knee колѣно
kolě́no
колено
koléno
коліно
kolíno
kolano koleno koleno колено
kòleno
коляно
koljano
Common Slavic *kolěno "knee"
48. hand рока
róka
рука
ruká
рука
ruká
ręka ruka ruka рука
rúka
ръка
răka
Common Slavic *rǫka "hand"
49. belly желудоке
źeludóke
живот
živót
живіт
žyvít
żołądek brjuch břicho стомак
stȍmāk
корем
korem
Common Slavic *želǫdъkъ "stomach"
50. neck шия
śíja
шея
šéja
шия
šýja
szyja šija krk врат
vrȃt
врат
vrat
Common Slavic *šija "neck"
51. breast гранди
grándi
грудь
grúd'
груди
hrúdi
pierś hrudź prs груди
grȗdi
гръд
grăd
Common Slavic *grǫdь "breast"
52. heart шерце
śérce
сердце
sérdce
серце
sérce
serce wutroba srdce срце
sȑce
сърце
sărce
Common Slavic *sьrdьko "heart"
53. liver етро
iétro
печень
péčen'
печінка
pečínka
wątroba jatra játra јетра
jȅtra
черен дроб
čeren drob
Common Slavic *jętro "liver, organ"
54. drink (v) пити
píti
пить
pít'
пити
pýty
pić pić pít пити
pȉti
пия
pija
Common Slavic *piti "drink"
55. eat ѣсти
iě́sti
есть
jést'
їсти
jísty
jeść jěsć jíst јести
jȅsti
ям
jam
Common Slavic *ěsti "eat"
56. bite кузати
kuzáti
кусать
kusát'
кусати
kusáty
gryść kusać kousat ујести
ùjesti
хапя
xapja
Common Slavic *kǫsъ "bite, morsel"
57. see видѣти
viděti
видеть
vídet'
бачити
báčyty
widzieć widźeć vidět видети
vȉdeti
виждам
viždam
Common Slavic *viděti "see"
58. hear слихати
slíhati
слышать
slýšat'
чути
čuty
słyszeć słyšeć slyšet чути
čȕti
чувам
čuvam
Common Slavic *slyšati "hear"
59. know вѣсти
vě́sti
знать
znát'
знати
znáty
wiedzieć znać vědět знати
znȁti
зная
znaja
Common Slavic *věsti "know"
60. sleep спати
spáti
спать
spát'
спати
spáty
spać spać spát спавати
spávati
спя
spja
Common Slavic *sъраti "sleep"
61. die омирати
omiráti
умирать
umirát'
умирати
umyráty
umierać wuměrać umírat умрети
ùmrēti
умирам
umiram
Common Slavic *merti "die"
62. kill забитати
zabitáti
убивать
ubivát'
убивати
ubyváty
zabijać morić zabít убити
ùbiti
убивам
ubivam
Common Slavic *biti "beat, maul"
63. swim плути
plúti
плыть
plýt'
пливти
plyvtý
pływać płuwać plavat пливати
plȉvati
плувам
pluvam
Common Slavic *pluti "swim"
64. fly (v) ледѣти
ledě́ti
лететь
letét'
літати
litáty
latać lećeć letět летети
lèteti
летя
letja
Common Slavic *letěti "fly"
65. walk ходити
hóditi
ходить
xodít'
ходити
xodýty
chodzić chodźić jít ходати
hódati
ходя
xodja
Common Slavic *xoditi "walk"
66. come исти
ísti
идти
idtí
іти
itý
przyjść přinć přijít доћи
dȏći
идвам
idvam
Common Slavic *jьti "go"
67. lie, recline лежити
leźíti
лежать
ležát'
лежати
ležáty
leżeć ležeć ležet лежати
lèžati
лежа
leža
Common Slavic *ležati "lie"
68. sit шѣдѣти
śědě́ti
сидеть
sidét'
сидіти
sydíty
siadać sedźeć sedět седети
sèdeti
седя
sedja
Common Slavic *sěděti "sit"
69. stand стояти
stoiáti
стоять
stoját'
стојати
stojáty
stać stać stát стајати
stȁjati
стоя
stoja
Common Slavic *stojati "stand"
70. give дати
dáti
давать
davát'
давати
daváty
dawać dać dát дати
dȁti
давам
davam
Common Slavic *dati "give"
71. say рѣѕити
rědzíti
говорить
govorít'
говорити
hovorýty
mówić rjec říkat рећи
rȅći
казвам
kazvam
Common Slavic *rekti "tell"
72. sun соунце
sóunce
солнце
sólnce
сонце
sónce
słońce słónco slunce сунце
sȗnce
слънце
slănce
Common Slavic *sъlnьko "sun"
73. moon љуна
łuná
луна
luná
місяць
mísjac'
księżyc měsačk luna месец
mȅsēc
луна
luna
Common Slavic *luna "moon"
74. star гуѣзда
guě́zda
звезда
zvezdá
зоря
zorjá
gwiazda hwězda hvězda звезда
zvézda
звезда
zvezda
Common Slavic *gvězdа "star"
75. water вода
vóda
вода
vodá
вода
vodá
woda woda voda вода
vòda
вода
voda
Common Slavic *voda "water"
76. rain (n) дожгьи
doźgjí
дождь
dóžd'
дощ
dóšč
deszcz dešć déšť киша
kȉša
дъжд
dăžd
Common Slavic *dъdjь "rain"
77. stone каме
káme
камень
kámen'
камінь
kámin'
kamień kamjeń kámen камен
kȁmēn
камък
kamăk
Common Slavic *kamy "stone"
78. sand хета
héta
песок
pesók
пісок
pisók
piasek pěsk písek песак
pésak
пясък
pjasăk
Old Finnish heeta "sand"
79. soil, earth жемя
źémia
земля
zemljá
земля
zemljá
ziemia zemja země земља
zèmlja
земя
zemja
Common Slavic *zemja "land, earth"
80. cloud облоко
óbloko
облако
óblako
хмара
xmára
chmura mróčel oblak облак
ȍblāk
облак
oblak
Common Slavic *ob-volkъ "cloud"
81. smoke диме
díme
дым
dým
дим
dým
dym kur dým дим
dȉm
дим
dim
Common Slavic *dymъ "smoke"
82. fire огни
ógni
огонь
ogón'
вогонь
vohón'
ogień woheń oheň ватра
vȁtra
огън
ogăn
Common Slavic *ognь "fire"
83. ash певле
pévle
пепел
pépel
попіл
pópil
popiół popjeł popel пепео
pȅpeo
пепел
pepel
Common Slavic *pepьlъ "ash"
84. burn (intr) гейкьиш
géikjiś
гореть
gorét'
горіти
horíty
palić się so palić hořet горети
gòreti
горя
gorja
Common Slavic gegti sę "burn"
85. path панти
pánti
путь
pút'
доріжка
dorížka
droga puć silnice пут
pȗt
път
păt
Common Slavic *pǫtь "path"
86. mountain гора
góra
гора
gorá
гора
horá
góra hora hora планина
planìna
планина
planina
Common Slavic *gora "mountain"
87. red цервене
cérvene
красный
krásnyj
червоний
červónyj
czerwony čerwjeny červený црвен
cr̀ven
червен
červen
Common Slavic *čьrvjenъ "red"
88. green желене
źeléne
зелёный
zeljónyj
зелений
zelényj
zielony zeleny zelený зелен
zèlen
зелен
zelen
Common Slavic *zelenъ "green"
89. yellow жољте
źółte
жёлтый
žóltyj
жовтий
žóvtyj
żółty žołty žlutý жут
žȗt
жълт
žălt
Common Slavic *žьltъ "yellow"
90. white бѣле
bě́le
белый
bélyj
білий
bílyj
biały běły bílý бео
bȅo
бял
bjal
Common Slavic *bělъ "white"
91. black церне
cérne
чёрный
čórnyj
чорний
čórnyj
czarny čorny černý црн
cȓn
черен
čeren
Common Slavic *čьrхnъ "black"
92. night нокьи
nókji
ночь
nóč'
ніч
níč
noc nóc noc ноћ
nȏć
нощ
nošt
Common Slavic *noktь "night"
93. hot горекье
gorékje
горячий
gorjáčij
гарячий
harjáčyj
gorący horcy horký врућ
vrȗć
горещ
gorešt
Common Slavic *gorętjь "burning"
94. cold кладне
kládne
холодный
xolódnyj
холодний
xolódnyj
zimny zymny chladný хладан
hládan
хладен
xladen
Common Slavic *xoldьnъ "cold"
95. full плоне
plóne
полный
pólnyj
повний
póvnyj
pełny połny plný пун
pȕn
пълен
pălen
Common Slavic *plъnъ "full"
96. new нове
nóve
новый
nóvyj
новий
novýj
nowy nowy nový нов
nȍv
нов
nov
Common Slavic *novъ "new"
97. good добре
dóbre
хороший
xoróšij
добрий
dóbryj
dobry dobry dobrý добар
dȍbar
добър
dobăr
Common Slavic *dobrъ "good"
98. round обле
óble
круглый
krúglyj
круглий
krúhlyj
okrągły kulojty kulatý обао
ȍbao
кръгъл
krăgăl
Common Slavic *obьlъ "round"
99. dry сухе
súhe
сухой
suxój
сухий
suxýj
suchy suchi suchý сух
sȗh
сух
sux
Common Slavic *suxъ "dry"
100. name ймѣно
jmě́no
имя
ímja
ім'я
im'já
imię mjeno jméno име
ȉme
име
ime
Common Slavic *jьmę "name"

1) A less formal variant of мати

2) Borrows the singular possessive forms (as well as plurals) from дѣдин

3) Same meaning as дѣтинко

4) Informal; substitutes for both стриеце and оеце

5) Informal

6) Informal

7) The adjective mirrors the gender of the sibling. Therefore, братеве син means the son of a brother, and шестрин син is the son of a sister, while братева докьи means the daughter of a brother and шестрина докьи is the daughter of a sister.